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National Electricity Transmission Grid Of North Korea

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Observe: Information contained on this report is the very best out there as of October 2002 and can change. Basic BACKGROUND
North Korea’s economy, which stays under tight state management (collectivized agriculture and state-owned corporations account for about 90% of all financial activity) grew by three.7% in 2001, after rising 1.Three% in 2000, based on estimates by South Korea’s central bank. Robust will increase in agricultural and mining output, both of that are major sectors of North Korea’s economy, contributed to this progress. The GDP growth of the final three years adopted a steady financial contraction from 1990 through 1998. North Korea’s communist ideology has been primarily based on the concept of “juche,” or self-reliance. Severe financial issues have, however, forced the country to accept international food support and embark on a series of restricted market reforms. Famine in North Korea has reportedly killed a whole lot of 1000’s of people over the last decade. A number of governments, together with the United States, have offered funding to the United Nations’ World Food Program (WFP) for emergency food help to North Korea. North Korea has permitted a small amount of overseas funding in recent times. Manufacturing plants of South Korean firms operating joint ventures in North Korea now generate over $one hundred million in annual income. North Korean-South Korean Relations
From June 13th to fifteenth, 2000, the leaders of the two Koreas held their first summit assembly in Pyongyang. The summit led to a joint statement by the 2 leaders which supported, typically terms, the goal of eventual reunification of the 2 Korean states, reunification of families divided since the Korean Battle, and economic cooperation. A planned followup visit to South Korea by North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il, nevertheless, has been repeatedly delayed. Developments in inter-Korean relations in 2002 have been mixed. A naval clash near the 2 international locations maritime frontier in June 2002 heightened tensions, however progress has been made in some areas, such because the graduation of work in September 2002 on clearing components of the Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) to facilitate attainable road and rail links. It’s unclear what effect the disclosure of the North’s violations of the Agreed Framework can have on this work. United States Economic Sanctions
The United States announced on June 19, 2000 that it was easing a few of the economic sanctions which have been in place with North Korea below the Buying and selling With the Enemy Act since the start of the Korean War in 1950. Licenses are nonetheless required from the Treasury Division’s Workplace of Overseas Assets Control (OFAC) for a lot of transactions, and gross sales of military and “twin-use” objects are still restricted. (See the OFAC Truth Sheet on North Korea Sanctions for more info.) The designation of North Korea as a state supporter of terrorism by the United States additionally successfully precludes lending by international monetary institutions such as the World Financial institution. Home Power Resources
North Korea relies on two home sources of commercial vitality — coal and hydropower — for most of its power needs. In 2000, coal accounted for about 86% of primary vitality consumption. North Korea’s electric generating capability is break up almost evenly between coal-fired thermal plants and hydroelectric plants. In 2000, hydroelectric power plants generated about 67% of North Korea’s electricity and thermal plants about 33%. The nation’s thermal generating capability is underutilized as a consequence of a lack of fuels. The country’s total electricity consumption in 2000 was solely sixty five% of what it had been in 1991, though it showed a rise of nearly 9% over the determine for 1999. Because of the electricity shortage, North Korea has resorted to a rationing system. The nation typically experiences blackouts for prolonged intervals of time, and energy losses attributable to an antiquated transmission grid are excessive. Rainfall improved in 2001, however some hydroelectric facilities are believed to be out of operation due to flood damage from major flooding in 1996. The prospect of South Korean assist for North Korea’s electricity scarcity was discussed on the June 2000 summit meeting, and North Korea has since been looking for electricity from South Korea since then. A linkage between the electric grids of the two Koreas is one possibility, but it surely can be of limited quick value due to the North’s poor transmission infrastructure. At current, South Korea has not agreed to produce the North with electricity from its own transmission grid. North Korea also has reportedly discussed the potential of electricity aid with Russia. Issues with the North Korean coal business are carefully related to the issue with electricity provide. Coal-fired power plants have been working well below capability in recent years, due partially to problems with rail transportation of coal. PETROLEUM
North Korea lacks home petroleum reserves, but the West Korea Bay could include hydrocarbon reserves, because it is considered to be a geological extension of China’s Bohai Bay. Sweden’s Taurus Petroleum holds an oil exploration concession for 2 blocks, B and C, off the west coast of North Korea. Britain’s Soco Worldwide holds the concession for Block A. Preliminary seismic surveys conducted by Taurus have identified doable oil-bearing geological structures. The two firms held separate discussions with South Korea’s Korean National Oil Firm (KNOC) and Hyundai about presumably forming a consortium for joint exploration of the areas, however no new activity has been reported in these concessions in the last yr. Australia’s Beach Petroleum also holds a concession for one block off the east coast of North Korea, which is taken into account less promising. In November 2001, the North Korean authorities awarded its first concession for an onshore used oil refinery in australia block to Sovereign Ventures of Singapore, which covers an area in the Tachon-Rajin area close to the Chinese language border. In September 2002, the corporate reported that initial seismic survey outcomes had indicated probable oil and natural fuel deposits of modest dimension. In the meantime, North Korea must import the entire oil it consumes. Oil accounts for about 6% of whole North Korean major energy consumption, and is mostly limited to non-substitutable uses such as motor gasoline, diesel, and jet gas. With the exception of the heavy fuel oil which was being supplied beneath the Agreed Framework, most petroleum is imported as crude oil and processed at domestic refineries. Under the 1994 “Agreed Framework,” the United States had assumed accountability for offering 500,000 metric tons (roughly three.3 million barrels) of heavy gas oil annually through Korean Peninsula Power Development Organization (KEDO). Natural Fuel Transportation
South Korea has held discussions with China, Russia, and BP about the opportunity of importing pure fuel from Russia’s enormous Kovykta gas area near Irkutsk. While China can be a major importer of gasoline by means of the pipeline, the mission could possibly be made extra economical by including a hyperlink to South Korea, which at the moment gets the overwhelming majority of its pure fuel by tanker as liquefied pure gasoline (LNG). North Korea is one attainable route for the pipeline link to South Korea, and can be less expensive than the subsea different. NUCLEAR Power
Prior to 1994, North Korea’s nuclear program had been a significant concern for regional security, since its graphite reactor expertise produced fissionable plutonium which might be utilized in nuclear weapons. North Korea withdrew from the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1993. Underneath the Agreed Framework negotiated with the United States in 1994, North Korea had agreed to freeze its nuclear program in exchange for two new pressurized light-water reactors (that are considered much less able to producing weapons-grade plutonium) and 500,000 metric tons per yr (about three.3 million barrels) of heavy gas oil to fulfill its energy wants until the first new reactor becomes operational. KEDO, an international consortium led by the U.S. government (with South Korea, Japan, the European Union, and others), was established to implement the settlement. The European Union used oil refinery in australia joined KEDO in September 1997. Japan signed a contract in Might 1999 committing to offer its $1 billion contribution to KEDO to fund the brand new light-water reactors, an motion which had been delayed by North Korea’s missile test in August 1998. The challenge was anticipated to cost a total of $four.6 billion, with South Korea providing the best share of funding at $3.2 billion. The United States and the European Union additionally had pledged to contribute funds. Building of the sunshine water reactors was to be performed below a turnkey contract with KEPCO, which was awarded in December 1999. Initial site preparation work had begun, and the concrete foundation at the positioning was laid in August 2002. Coaching of North Korean technicians who had been to operate the reactors had begun in June 2002. The mission had confronted many delays, and the completion date for the first reactor has been pushed again to at the very least 2008, from an unique completion date of 2003. One hurdle the challenge had faced was the issue of indemnity for potential liabilities created by the plant. General Electric had originally been chosen to produce the generators, however pulled out of the mission when the difficulty was not resolved to its satisfaction. In January 2001, it was introduced that a consortium of Japanese corporations, led by Hitachi and Toshiba, would supply the generators. With the North Korean admission in early October 2002, in response to press studies, of its violations of the Agreed Framework by pursuing a program to enrich uranium for nuclear weapons, the light water reactor mission is at present stalled. Country OVERVIEW
Head of State: Kim Jong Il (Chairman, Nationwide Defense Fee)
Independence: September 9, 1948
Population (2002E): 22.2 million
Location/Size: Jap Asia/a hundred and twenty,540 sq. kilometers (forty six,800 sq. miles), about the scale of Pennsylvania
Main Cities: Pyongyang (capital), Hamhung, Chongjin
Language: Korean
Ethnic Teams: Korean
Religions: Buddhism, Christianity, Chundo Kyo
Defense (6/98): Army, (923,000); Air Force, (85,000); Navy, (forty six,000); safety/border troops, (one hundred fifteen,000); employees’ and peasants’ militia (Purple Guard), 3.Eight million Financial OVERVIEW
Currency: A hundred Chon = 1 Received
Official Alternate Charge (10/02): US$1 = 2.20 Received
Gross Home Product (2001E): $15.5 billion
Actual GDP Growth Fee (2001E): Three.7% (Central Bank of South Korea estimate)
External Debt (1996E): $12 billion (much of this debt currently is in default)
Merchandise Exports (2001E): $Seven hundred million
Merchandise Imports (2001E): $1.6 billion
Main Import Products: Petroleum, grain, coking coal, equipment and tools, and consumer items
Major Export Products: Minerals, metallurgical products, agricultural and fishery merchandise, manufactured items (including armaments)
Trading Companions: China, Japan, Russia, Germany, Singapore, South Korea, Hong Kong Energy OVERVIEW
Minister of the ability Industry: Yi Chi-chan
Minister of the Atomic Energy: Choe Hak-Kun
Minister of the Coal Business: Kim Ki Kyong
Oil and Pure Fuel Production/Proven Reserves: None
Oil Consumption (2000E): 80,000 barrels per day (bbl/d) – all imported
Crude Oil Refining Capacity (1/1/02E): 71,000 bbl/d
Recoverable Coal Reserves (12/31/ninety nine): 661 million brief tons
Coal Manufacturing (2000E): One hundred and one.Four million short tons
Coal Consumption (2000E): 103.6 million short tons
Electric Generating Capability (1/1/00E): 9.5 gigawatts (about fifty three% hydropower)
Electricity Era (2000E): 33.Four billion kilowatthours
Major Ports: Chongjin, Hamhung, Nampo ENVIRONMENTAL OVERVIEW
Minister of Land & Atmosphere Safety: II-Son Chang
Complete Vitality Consumption (2000E): 2.Eight quadrillion Btu* (zero.7% of world total power consumption)
Energy-Related Carbon Emissions (2000E): 66.1 million metric tons of carbon (1.Zero% of world complete carbon emissions)
Per Capita Power Consumption (2000E): 127.8 million Btu (vs U.S. worth of 351.Zero million Btu)
Per Capita Carbon Emissions (2000E): Three.Zero metric tons of carbon (vs U.S. worth of 5.6 metric tons of carbon)
Power Depth (1997E): 71,200 Btu/$1990 (vs U.S. worth of 13,900 Btu/$1990)**
Carbon Depth (1997E): 1.7 metric tons of carbon/thousand $1990 (vs U.S. value of 0.22 metric tons/thousand $1990)**
Sectoral Share of Energy Consumption (1998E): Industrial (70.9%), Transportation (28.7%), Residential (zero.4%), Industrial (0.Zero%)
Sectoral Share of Carbon Emissions (1998E): Industrial (eighty.3%), Transportation (19.Three%), Residential (0.Four%), Commercial (0.0%)
Fuel Share of Power Consumption (2000E): Coal (85.Eight%), Oil (5.9%), Pure Gas (zero.0%)
Fuel Share of Carbon Emissions (2000E): Coal (95.1%), Oil (four.9%), Natural Gasoline (0.0%)
Renewable Vitality Consumption (1998E): 249.5 trillion Btu* (7% decrease from 1997)
Standing in Climate Change Negotiations: Non-Annex I country under the United Nations Framework Convention on Local weather Change (ratified December fifth, 1994). Not a signatory to the Kyoto Protocol.
Main Environmental Points: Localized air pollution attributable to inadequate industrial controls; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water.
Main International Environmental Agreements: A party to the Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Local weather Change, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection and Ship Pollution. Has signed, however not ratified, the Antarctic-Environmental Protocol and Law of the Sea. * The full energy consumption statistic includes petroleum, dry natural fuel, coal, internet hydro, nuclear, geothermal, photo voltaic, wind, wood and waste electric power. The renewable vitality consumption statistic relies on International Vitality Company (IEA) knowledge and consists of hydropower, photo voltaic, wind, tide, geothermal, strong biomass and animal merchandise, biomass gasoline and liquids, industrial and municipal wastes. Sectoral shares of energy consumption and carbon emissions are additionally based on IEA knowledge.
**GDP primarily based on EIA Worldwide Energy Annual 2000 Sources for this report embody: The Financial institution of Korea (South Korea); Chosun Ilbo; CIA World Factbook 2002; Dow Jones Information Wire service; DRI-WEFA Asia Economic Outlook; Economist Intelligence Unit ViewsWire; Vitality Compass; Hart’s Asian Petroleum News; Korea Herald; Korea Times; Lloyds Checklist; Los Angeles Occasions; U.S. Vitality Info Administration; U.S. Division of State; Reuters News Wire.
For extra data on North Korea, please see these other sources on the EIA web site:
EIA – Nation Info on North Korea Links to other U.S. government websites:
CIA World Factbook – North Korea
U.S. Department of Power – Workplace of Fossil Power – North Korea
U.S. Treasury Department – Office of International Property Control
U.S. State Division – Background Notes – North Korea
U.S. State Department – Consular Data Sheet – North Korea
Library of Congress Country Examine on North Korea The following links are offered solely as a service to our prospects, and subsequently shouldn’t be construed as advocating or reflecting any place of the Power Info Administration (EIA) or the United States Government. As well as, EIA doesn’t assure the content material or accuracy of any data introduced in linked websites. Korean Peninsula Vitality Improvement Organization (KEDO)
North Korea WWW Digital Library
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