refinery runs, us oil surplus,oil and gas company Exxon Mobil was ranked fourth among the biggest oil and gas companies, with a total revenue of some 233 billion U.S. dollars.

51.5 DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL

Petroleum gas is a mixture of butane, propane and ethane. The principle constituent of petroleum gas is butane. Petroleum gas burns readily within the presence of air with a blue flame, producing a large amount of heat. Butane, propane and ethane are gases under peculiar strain. Nevertheless, butane may be simply liquefied beneath pressure. The petroleum gas which has been liquefied below pressure is called Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG). Petroleum gas is supplied in liquid kind in order that a cylinder of even small volume might include an appreciable amount of the gas. A robust smelling substance (Ethyl mercaptan, C2H5SH is added to LPG gas cylinders to assist in the detection of gas leakage. The gas used for domestic cooking is called Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) as a result of it is present in liquid kind within the cylinders.

Have you learnt Asphaltenes
The non-volatile tarry residue left after distillation of residue from the fractionating tower incorporates compounds with massive molecules. These are resins and asphaltenes.

Asphaltenes consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Asphaltenes are defined operationally as n-heptane insoluble and toluene soluble element of a carbonaceous material comparable to crude oil. They represent the non-volatile, high
molecular mass fraction of petroleum. Moreover, since they are insoluble in heptane, they stay in solid kind even within the crude. Asphaltenes are current in dispersed
form within the crude oil. They are stabilised by resins which keep them dispersed in oil.

Asphaltenes create many manufacturing problems due to their depositional impact in the manufacturing equipment. Asphaltenes in the form of distillation merchandise from
refineries are used as ‘tar-mats’ on roads.

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Instance 51.1 The boiling points of three parts A, B and C of petroleum are 120°C, 70°C and 250°C respectively. if the mixture of three is fractionally distilled, which of the three shall be

obtained at the underside of the distillation column
Solution. Throughout fractional distillation of a mixture, the element having the best boiling point us oil surplus is obtained at the bottom of the column. In the given mixture, the part C has the best boiling level and therefore will likely be obtained at the bottom of the distillation column.

Instance fifty one.2 A mixture comprises three parts P, Q and R-with boiling factors 150°C, 250°C and 350°C respectively. if this mixture is subjected to fractional distillation, in which order would you get these substances

Answer. During fractional distillation of a mixture, the element having the highest boiling point is obtained at the bottom of the column whereas the part having the least boiling point is obtained at the top of the column. Within the given mixture the component R, having the best boiling point will probably be obtained at the bottom of the column. The element Q having intermediate boiling point will probably be obtained in the middle of the column while the element P, having the lowest boiling level, will likely be obtained at the highest of the column. Thus, these substances will be obtained (from backside to high) in the order R, Q and P.

Activity fifty us oil surplus one.1 Petroleum fractions are highly inflammable
Gather samples of petroleum ether, gasoline, kerosene oil and diesel oil.

– Study the ignition behaviour of those fractions by burning just a little of each fraction.
– Observe the benefit with which every fraction ignites and observe the flame.
– Observe the viscous nature of every fraction.