The Means of Crude Oil Refining
As soon as crude oil is extracted from the bottom, it should be transported and refined into petroleum merchandise which have any worth. Those products must then be transported to finish-use shoppers or retailers (like gasoline stations or the corporate that delivers heating oil to your house, if in case you have an oil furnace). The general well-to-shopper supply chain for petroleum products is commonly described as being segmented into three parts (shown graphically in Figure 2.1).
Upstream activities involve exploring for crude oil deposits and the production of crude oil. Examples of companies that would belong within the upstream section of the industry embody firms that personal rights to drill for oil (e.g. ExxonMobil) and firms that present help services to the drilling segment of the industry (e.g. Halliburton).
Midstream actions involve the distribution of crude oil to refiners; the refining of crude oil into saleable merchandise; and the distribution of products to wholesalers and retailers. Examples of corporations that will belong within the midstream phase of the industry include companies that transport oil by pipeline, truck or barge (e.g. Magellan Pipeline); underground coal gasification pros and cons and corporations that refine crude oil (e.g. Tesoro).
Downstream activities involve the retail sale of petroleum merchandise. Gasoline stations are maybe probably the most seen downstream companies, however firms that ship heating oil or propane would also fall into this category.
Some firms in the petroleum trade have actions that will fall into upstream, midstream and downstream segments. ExxonMobil is one instance of such a agency. Others have actions that fall primarily into just one segment. The KinderMorgan pipeline company is an instance of a specialised petroleum agency, in this case belonging to the midstream section. Many regions have local gasoline station brands that will specialize within the downstream phase of the industry. Among the finest-identified regional examples is the WaWa chain of fuel stations and convenience stores in eastern Pennsylvania, but giant grocery shops and retailers like Costco and Wal-Mart are increasingly concerned in downstream gross sales of petroleum products.
Petroleum refineries are giant-scale industrial complexes that produce saleable petroleum products from crude oil (and sometimes other feedstocks like biomass). The small print of refinery operations differ from location to location, but virtually all refineries share two basic processes for separating crude oil into the assorted product components. Precise refinery operations are very complicated. The hyperlink below will take you to a 10-minute lengthy video that provides extra details on the assorted refining processes.
The primary course of is known as distillation. On this process, crude oil is heated and fed into a distillation column. A schematic of the distillation column is proven in Determine 2.2. As the temperature of the crude oil in the distillation column rises, the crude oil separates itself into totally different components, known as “fractions.” The fractions are then captured separately. Each fraction corresponds to a different sort of petroleum product, depending on the temperature at which that fraction boils off the crude oil mixture.
The second process is named cracking and reforming. Figure 2.Three offers a simplified view of how these processes are used on the assorted fractions produced by way of distillation. The heaviest fractions, including the gasoils and residual oils, are decrease in worth than among the lighter fractions, so refiners undergo a course of referred to as “cracking” to break apart the molecules in these fractions. This course of can produce some increased-worth products from heavier fractions. Cracking is most often utilized to supply gasoline and jet gas from heavy gasoils. Reforming is often utilized on decrease-value gentle fractions, once more to provide more gasoline. The reforming process entails inducing chemical reactions underneath stress to alter the composition of the hydrocarbon chain.
The manufacturing of ultimate petroleum products differs from refinery to refinery, but typically the oil refineries within the U.S. are engineered to underground coal gasification pros and cons provide as a lot gasoline as doable, owing to high demand from the transportation sector. Figure 2.4 shows the composition of output from a typical U.S. refinery.
Nearly half of each barrel of crude oil that goes into a typical U.S. refinery will emerge on the other end as gasoline. Diesel fuel, another transportation fuel, is usually the second-most-produced product from a refinery, representing about one-quarter of each barrel of oil.
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