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Chemistry Of Petroleum 4: Remedy Of Hydrocarbons

To introduce how renewable energy technology ltd petroleum fractions are chemically treated within the refinery course of to provide useful materials.

Context
Flash ColumnThis lesson is part of the Vitality in a Excessive-Tech World Venture, which examines the science behind power. Vitality in a Excessive-Tech World is developed by AAAS and funded by the American Petroleum Institute. Esterification Reactor For extra classes, actions, and interactives that take a more in-depth look on the science behind power, be certain to take a look at the Energy in a High-Tech World Challenge web page.

This lesson is the fourth in a sequence of classes about the chemistry of petroleum that are meant for higher-degree chemistry college students in the eleventh and twelfth grades. You have to be an skilled chemistry trainer to show these classes. The aim of these classes is to introduce excessive-college students to using oil as an energy supply in at this time’s excessive-tech world. Within the Chemistry of Petroleum 1: What are Hydrocarbons college students will explore hydrocarbons, the molecular basis of petroleum, and study to distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds.

In the Chemistry of Petroleum 2: What Happens to Hydrocarbons After they Burn college students will examine the varying quantities of power produced by the combustion of various hydrocarbons.

In the Chemistry of Petroleum three: Distillation of Hydrocarbons, college students will probably be introduced to the distillation processes by which petroleum is refined to produce helpful petroleum fractions.

The Chemistry of Petroleum four: Treatment of Hydrocarbons will help students discover the chemical therapy processes by which distilled petroleum fractions are converted to provide helpful fuel oils.

This particular lesson is a continuation of lesson 3, which taken together complete the crude oil refining course of. Lesson three concludes with the crude oil being separated into petroleum fractions, based mostly on the relative boiling points of the hydrocarbons in the unique crude oil. In this lesson, college students discover how these petroleum fractions are handled chemically to provide useful fuels which can be acquainted to them, similar to diesel, jet gas, and gasoline.

As students discover the interactive, they could also be overwhelmed with the quantity of terminology and reactions related to the remedy process. Students don’t must know or memorize the main points of those reactions; fairly, they should achieve a basic understanding that a sequence of chemical reactions are essential in producing the fuels which can be used on an on a regular basis foundation.

As in lesson three, this activity gives an opportunity to clarify the widespread false impression that crude oil is composed of particular person molecules of diesel, kerosene, and the opposite refined merchandise. By the end of these classes, students should understand that there is no such thing as a single molecule often called diesel, or kerosene, or light gases, with a selected chemical formulation, like H2O. Fuel oils, like diesel, are a mixture of various molecules that share related properties. The 2 principal properties shared in a petroleum fraction are the variety of carbons in a molecule and the boiling point.

So as for college kids to do this lesson, as well as the other lessons on this collection, they should have prerequisite data of the fundamentals of atoms and their construction. Primary information about atoms will be found at the Atom. Students also should know fundamental natural chemistry, including an understanding of what hydrocarbons are and the way they are named (i.e. nomenclature).

Motivation
Start by asking students: “We know that petroleum is used to make gasoline. But what different merchandise are made from petroleum ” Ask college students to brainstorm in teams, each group producing a list of not less than ten objects that they’ve seen or used in the past 24 hours which can be petroleum products. A list of gadgets may be discovered at: Just a few Products Made from Petroleum.

As student groups share their product objects, generate a category checklist. Point out that these items and plenty of extra are all made with fuels derived from crude oil or petroleum. Ask students:

– How do you think our use of petroleum merchandise has modified over time
– Given the excessive buyer demand and the truth that crude oil is a limited useful resource, how do you suppose refineries make the most out of the crude oil they’ve

Development
Review with college students the first levels of crude oil refinement and treatment by making a flowchart. At the start of the flowchart, write the words “crude oil.” At the tip of the flowchart, place the record of merchandise generated by the students. Start to fill in the flowchart by asking students what occurs to crude oil once it’s located in the earth. Next steps should include extraction and taking the crude oil to a petroleum refinery. As soon as at the refinery, the crude oil undergoes the distillation process. The outcomes of distillation are petroleum fractions. Ask students, “Describe what has occurred to the hydrocarbons in the distillation course of.”

Now students ought to review the Oil Refining: A closer Look interactive by watching the introductory video and going through the distillation process. The film has an accompanying script that you could print out. The narrator speaks quickly, so it is a good suggestion to learn the script after watching the film the first time. After studying the script, college students can watch the film a second time, which can facilitate understanding.

– What chemical property was used to separate the hydrocarbons within the distillation process
Undergo the seven fractions, emphasizing that the fractions are composed of a mixture of hydrocarbons, and are not composed of a single molecule. For example, kerosene is a mixture of hydrocarbon molecules from the unique crude oil that include between 10-sixteen carbons. Because of this there are hydrocarbons in the kerosene fraction that include 10 carbons and others that include 11, and so on through 16.

Point out that by means of the distillation course of, the hydrocarbons haven’t been altered or modified in any method; they have merely been separated by dimension using the chemical property of boiling level differences. This is a bodily change. On the flowchart after distillation and before the students’ listing of on a regular basis merchandise and oils, write the phrase “therapy.” Outline for college kids that therapy is the sequence of chemical reactions and applied sciences to change the distilled fractions to make helpful and marketable oils.

Enable college students to explore the treatment section of the interactive on their own utilizing the Remedy of Hydrocarbons scholar esheet. College students can reply the questions utilizing the Remedy of Hydrocarbons scholar sheet. Solutions are available on the Treatment of Hydrocarbons teacher sheet. Review the questions collectively as a class. By way of dialogue and evaluate of the guiding questions, explain that there are three totally different treatment processes, on the whole. These are:

1. Removing impurities within the hydrocarbons, equivalent to metals and sulfur
2. Breaking down giant, heavy hydrocarbons
3. Reshaping or building hydrocarbons from smaller ones

The goal of those processes is to make helpful merchandise, reminiscent of diesel, gasoline, jet gasoline, and asphalt. In the end, these closing merchandise aren’t individual molecules, but blends of treated hydrocarbons of varied lengths and structures.

Go through examples of each of the three processes. Begin with the first process (Removing impurities in the hydrocarbons) by asking students:

– What are the 2 processes which are used to remove sulfur
Tell students that the overall thought behind hydrotreating is so as to add hydrogen gasoline at high pressure and temperature to the petroleum fractions. The oil and hydrogen then enter a reactor loaded with a catalyst.

Ask college students:
– What is a catalyst

In hydrotreating, a renewable energy technology ltd metal surface is often used as a catalyst. These metals embrace palladium, nickel, platinum, cobalt, and iron. Draw a basic response formulation for students to understand hydrotreating.

S + H2 (g) → H2S (g)
(Catalyst, heat, and strain)
If attainable, challenge the treatment web page of the interactive for the category. Click on on one of many fuels after which on the hydrotreating field to indicate college students an instance of one of the forms of reactions that happen within the hydrotreating unit. Strong sulfur is converted to hydrogen sulfide fuel, which is then removed.

S8 (s) + 8H2 (g) → 8H2S (g)
(Catalyst, heat, and stress)
Inform students that the hydrotreating process additionally removes nitrogen compounds, which if not removed, would react with the oxygen in the air and produce nitric acid (HNO3).

Begin describing an instance of the second process (Breaking down massive, heavy hydrocarbons) by asking college students:

– Do giant hydrocarbons have high or low boiling factors Why
Write the formulation for docosane on the board: C22H46, and inform college students that this massive hydrocarbon is discovered in the gas oil fraction after distillation. The fuel oil fraction is composed of a mixture of hydrocarbons with 20-70 carbons. If possible, venture the treatment web page of the interactive in entrance of the classroom and click on on the red circle next to “gas oil.” Then click on on the throbbing yellow circle in the fuel oil pipe to display the chemical construction of docosane. Ask students:

– What is the first remedy process for the gas oil fraction
Inform college students that cracking processes break down heavy hydrocarbons (you may want to make use of the time period large hydrocarbon molecules) into lighter merchandise (smaller hydrocarbon molecules). Various kinds of cracking processes are used. Give attention to catalytic cracking, telling students that this process uses excessive heat and a catalyst to break larger molecules into smaller, extra helpful ones. Draw the next response to show college students how catalytic cracking works:

C22H46 + heat + catalyst → C12H26 + C6H12 + C4H8
The catalyst used is often silica or alumina. Within the above response, docosane is converted to dodecane, cyclohexane, and butene. The smaller hexane and butene will be combined with other smaller compounds to make gasoline stock. The bigger dodecane is a element of diesel stock, which can be used to gasoline ships and factories.

Describe an example of the third course of (Reshaping or constructing hydrocarbons from smaller ones) by clicking the red circle subsequent to “gentle naphtha” on the remedy page of the interactive. Doing so will show two treatment processes: hydrotreating and isomerization. Ask students:

– Are the hydrocarbons in mild naphtha massive or small relatively
Inform college students that light naphtha is a mixture of mostly pentane and hexane. Have college students draw the chemical structures of pentane and hexane. If possible, provide fashions of each construction. Ask college students:

– What’s an isomer
Write the following reaction on the board:

C5H12 → C5H12
Inform students that that is the reaction for pentane to isopentane. Ask students to draw the chemical construction of isopentane. Using the model for pentane, take away the fifth carbon from the chain and move it to the second carbon. This new construction is isopentane (additionally referred to as methylbutane or 2-methylbutane), which has the renewable energy technology ltd same chemical formulation as straight-chained pentane. Tell students that this isomerization is important within the petroleum therapy course of because isomers enhance the standard of gasoline versus the straight-chained molecules. In truth, isomers enhance the octane rating for gasoline.

Assessment
Have students work in teams to choose one among the tip merchandise of the crude oil distillation and remedy process: diesel, kerosene, gasoline, jet fuel, or asphalt. Ask every group to develop a presentation that discusses how their ultimate product is formed. As they’re doing this train, they need to be sure to categorise each step as a physical or chemical change. Their information ought to draw upon all features of the interactive, including the movie. Their presentations should start with the tiny sea plants living hundreds of thousands of years in the past and move by the process of forming kerogen, and ultimately petroleum. Remind students to include drilling before shifting into the distillation and treatment course of. Students ought to embody a circulation chart of their displays. Encourage college students to make use of different strategies of displaying their data. For instance, students may choose to current a storyboard, comedian ebook, PowerPoint, essay, or a brief film. Assess students based mostly on their holistic understanding of how useful fuel oils are made from crude oil via a sequence of important chemical processes.

Extensions
Have students discover what octane rankings for gasoline signify about the product. There are plenty of misconceptions that students may have. After a lesson, encourage college students to survey their mother and father, teachers, and different drivers about what they learn about octane scores of gasoline. You and your students can assessment Discovering the Science of Petrol to learn more about octane.