Propylene Is a vital Petrochemical Feedstock
Notice: Oxygenated gasoline excludes oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (OPRG) and reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate mixing (RBOB). Data on gasohol that has a minimum of 2.7 % oxygen, by weight, and is intended on the market inside CO nonattainment areas are included in knowledge on oxygenated gasoline. Other data on gasohol (to be used exterior of nonattainment areas) are included in information on conventional gasoline.
Oxygenates: Substances which, when added to gasoline, increase the amount of oxygen in that gasoline mix. Gas ethanol, Methyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (MTBE), Ethyl Tertiary Butyl Ether (ETBE), and methanol are widespread oxygenates.
PAD Districts or PADD: See Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts.
Guardian and its Consolidated Entities: A parent and those corporations (if any) which are affiliated with the father or mother entity for purposes of monetary statements prepared in accordance with Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP). A person shall be deemed to manage a agency that is directly or indirectly controlled by him/her or by his/her father, mother, partner, youngsters, or grandchildren. See firm.
Pentanes plus: A mixture of liquid hydrocarbons, mostly pentanes and heavier, extracted from natural gas in a fuel processing plant. Pentanes plus is equal to natural gasoline.
Persian Gulf: The nations that encompass the Persian Gulf are: Bahrain, Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, and the United Arab Emirates.
Petrochemical feedstocks: Chemical feedstocks derived from refined or partially refined petroleum fraction, principally for use within the manufacturing of chemicals, synthetic rubber, and a wide range of plastics.
Petroleum: A broadly defined class of liquid hydrocarbon mixtures. Included are crude oil, lease condensate, unfinished oils, refined products obtained from the processing of crude oil, and pure gas plant liquids. Observe: Volumes of finished petroleum products embrace non hydrocarbon compounds, comparable to additives and detergents, after they have been blended into the merchandise.
Petroleum Administration for Protection District (PADD): A geographic aggregation of the 50 States and the District of Columbia into five Districts, with PADD 1 further break up into three subdistricts. The PADDs include the States listed under: – PADD 1 (East Coast):
– PADD 1A (New England): Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts, New Hampshire, Rhode Island, and Vermont.
– PADD 1B (Central Atlantic): Delaware, District of Columbia, Maryland, New Jersey, New York, and Pennsylvania.
– PADD 1C (Decrease Atlantic): Florida, Georgia, North Carolina, South Carolina, Virginia, and West Virginia.
PADD 2 (Midwest): Illinois, Indiana, Iowa, Kansas, Kentucky, Michigan, Minnesota, Missouri, Nebraska, North Dakota, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Dakota, Tennessee, and Wisconsin.
PADD 3 (Gulf Coast): Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, New Mexico, and Texas.
PADD 4 (Rocky Mountain): Colorado, Idaho, Montana, Utah, and Wyoming.
PADD 5 (West Coast): Alaska, Arizona, California, Hawaii, Nevada, Oregon, and Washington.
Map of the PADD districts
Petroleum and different liquids: All petroleum including crude oil and products of petroleum refining, pure gasoline liquids, biofuels, and liquids derived from other hydrocarbon sources (together with coal to liquids and gasoline to liquids). refinery process of petroleum malaysia Not included are liquefied natural gas (LNG) and liquid hydrogen. See liquid fuels.
Petroleum coke: See Coke (petroleum).
Petroleum coke, catalyst: The carbonaceous residue that’s deposited on the catalyst used in lots of catalytic operations (e.g. catalytic cracking). Carbon is deposited on the catalyst, thus deactivating the catalyst. The catalyst is reactivated by burning off the carbon producing heat and CO2. The carbonaceous residue is not recoverable as a product.
Petroleum coke, marketable: These grades of coke produced in delayed or fluid cokers that could be recovered as relatively pure carbon. Marketable petroleum coke may be offered as is or additional purified by calcining.
Petroleum consumption: See Products provided
Petroleum imports: Imports of petroleum into the 50 states and the District of Columbia from foreign international locations and from Puerto Rico, the Virgin Islands, and other U.S. territories and possessions. Included are imports for the Strategic Petroleum Reserve and withdrawals from bonded warehouses for onshore consumption, offshore bunker use, and navy use. Excluded are receipts of international petroleum into bonded warehouses and into U.S. territories and U.S. International Commerce Zones.
Petroleum jelly: A semi-stable oily product produced from de-waxing lubricating oil basestocks.
Petroleum merchandise: Petroleum products are obtained from the processing of crude oil (including lease condensate), pure gasoline, and other hydrocarbon compounds. Petroleum merchandise include unfinished oils, liquefied petroleum gases, pentanes plus, aviation gasoline, motor gasoline, naphtha-type jet gas, kerosene-sort jet fuel, kerosene, distillate gas oil, residual fuel oil, petrochemical feedstocks, special naphthas, lubricants, waxes, petroleum coke, asphalt, street oil, still gasoline, and miscellaneous merchandise.
Petroleum refinery: An installation that manufactures finished petroleum merchandise from crude oil, unfinished oils, natural gasoline liquids, different hydrocarbons, and alcohol.
Petroleum stocks, main: For particular person products, quantities which might be held at refineries, in pipelines and at bulk terminals which have a capability of fifty,000 barrels or extra, or which might be in transit thereto. Stocks held by product retailers and resellers, as well as tertiary stocks held at the point of consumption, are excluded. Stocks of individual merchandise held at gas processing plants are excluded from individual product estimates but are included in different oils estimates and total.
Pipeline (petroleum): Crude oil and product pipelines used to transport crude oil and petroleum products, respectively (together with interstate, intrastate, and intracompany pipelines), throughout the 50 states and the District of Columbia.
Plant condensate: Liquid hydrocarbons recovered at inlet separators or scrubbers in pure gasoline processing plants at atmospheric stress and ambient temperatures. Principally pentanes and heavier hydrocarbons.
Play : A set of recognized or postulated oil and fuel accumulations sharing related geologic, geographic, and temporal properties, equivalent to source rock, migration pathway, timing, trapping mechanism, and hydrocarbon kind. A play differs from an assessment unit; an assessment unit can embody one or more plays. A play is often used to confer with a pure fuel accumulation, i.e. a pure gasoline shale play. http://energy.cr.usgs.gov/WEcont/chaps/GL.pdf
Prime provider: A agency that produces, imports, or transports selected petroleum merchandise across State boundaries and native advertising areas, and sells the product to local distributors, native retailers, or end customers.
Processing achieve: The volumetric amount by which complete output is larger than input for a given time frame. This difference is because of the processing of crude oil into merchandise which, in whole, have a lower particular gravity than the crude oil processed.
Processing loss: The volumetric quantity by which total refinery output is less than enter for a given period of time. This distinction is due to the processing of crude oil into merchandise which, in complete, have the next specific gravity than the crude oil processed.
Product supplied: Approximately represents consumption of petroleum products as a result of it measures the disappearance of those products from major sources, i.e. refineries, natural gasoline-processing plants, blending plants, pipelines, and bulk terminals. Basically, product provided of every product in any given period is computed as follows field production, plus refinery production, plus imports, plus unaccounted-for crude oil (plus internet receipts when calculated on a PAD District basis) minus stock change, minus crude oil losses, minus refinery inputs, and minus exports.
Propane, shopper grade: A normally gaseous paraffinic compound (C3H8), which includes all merchandise lined by Natural Gas Coverage Act Specifications for business and HD-5 propane and ASTM Specification D 1835. refinery process of petroleum malaysia Excludes: feedstock propanes, which are propanes not labeled as shopper grade propanes, including the propane portion of any natural gasoline liquid mixes, i.e. butane-propane combine.
Propylene (C3H6): An olefinic hydrocarbon recovered from refinery or petrochemical processes, which is gaseous at customary temperature and pressure. Propylene is a vital petrochemical feedstock.
Rack sales: Wholesale truckload sales or smaller of gasoline the place title transfers at a terminal.
Reference month: The calendar month and year to which the reported cost, value, and volume info relates.
Refiner: A agency or the a part of a firm that refines products or blends and substantially adjustments products, or refines liquid hydrocarbons from oil and fuel discipline gases, or recovers liquefied petroleum gases incident to petroleum refining and sells these products to resellers, retailers, reseller/retailers or final shoppers. “Refiner” consists of any proprietor of merchandise that contracts to have those products refined after which sells the refined products to resellers, retailers, or final customers.
Refinery: An installation that manufactures completed petroleum merchandise from crude oil, unfinished oils, pure gas liquids, different hydrocarbons, and oxygenates.
Refinery input, crude oil: Total crude oil (home plus overseas) input to crude oil distillation units and other refinery processing models (cokers, and so forth.).
Refinery input, whole: The uncooked supplies and intermediate materials processed at refineries to provide finished petroleum merchandise. They embody crude oil, products of pure gas processing plants, unfinished oils, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates, motor gasoline and aviation gasoline blending components and completed petroleum products.
Refinery manufacturing: Petroleum products produced at a refinery or mixing plant. Published manufacturing of those merchandise equals refinery production minus refinery enter. Unfavorable manufacturing will happen when the quantity of a product produced during the month is less than the quantity that is reprocessed (enter) or reclassified to become one other product during the identical month. Refinery production of unfinished oils and motor and aviation gasoline blending parts seem on a internet basis beneath refinery enter.
Refinery yield: Refinery yield (expressed as a share) represents the percent of completed product produced from enter of crude oil and web input of unfinished oils. It is calculated by dividing the sum of crude oil and web unfinished enter into the person net production of finished products. Earlier than calculating the yield for completed motor gasoline, the input of natural fuel liquids, other hydrocarbons and oxygenates, and internet input of motor gasoline blending components must be subtracted from the web manufacturing of completed aviation gasoline.
Reformulated gasoline: Finished gasoline formulated for use in motor automobiles, the composition and properties of which meet the requirements of the reformulated gasoline regulations promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Safety Agency underneath Section 211(ok) of the Clean Air Act. It consists of gasoline produced to satisfy or exceed emissions efficiency and benzene content material requirements of federal-program reformulated gasoline though the gasoline could not meet the entire composition necessities (e.g. oxygen content material) of federal-program reformulated gasoline. Observe: This class contains Oxygenated Fuels Program Reformulated Gasoline (OPRG). Reformulated gasoline excludes Reformulated Blendstock for Oxygenate Mixing (RBOB) and Gasoline Treated as Blendstock (GTAB).
Reseller: A agency (other than a refiner) that is engaged in a commerce or business that buys refined petroleum merchandise after which sells them to a purchaser who is just not the last word shopper of those refined merchandise.
Residential sector: An energy-consuming sector that consists of residing quarters for personal households. Widespread makes use of of vitality associated with this sector embody space heating, water heating, air conditioning, lighting, refrigeration, cooking, and operating a variety of other appliances. The residential sector excludes institutional residing quarters. Word: Various EIA programs differ in sectoral coverage.
Residual gas oil: A normal classification for the heavier oils, often known as No. 5 and No. 6 gas oils, that stay after the distillate gas refinery process of petroleum malaysia oils and lighter hydrocarbons are distilled away in refinery operations. It conforms to ASTM Specs D 396 and D 975and Federal Specification VV-F-815C. No. 5, a residual gasoline oil of medium viscosity, is also known as Navy Special and is defined in Navy Specification MIL-F-859E, including Modification 2 (NATO Symbol F-770). It’s used in steam-powered vessels in government service and inshore powerplants. No. 6 gas oil contains Bunker C fuel oil and is used for the production of electric energy, house heating, vessel bunkering, and numerous industrial functions.
Residuum: Residue from crude oil after distilling off all but the heaviest parts, with a boiling range greater than 1,000 degrees Fahrenheit.
Retailer: A agency (apart from a refiner, reseller, or reseller/retailer) that carries on the trade or enterprise of buying refined petroleum products and reselling them to ultimate shoppers with out considerably changing their form.
Highway oil: Any heavy petroleum oil, including residual asphaltic oil used as a mud palliative and surface remedy on roads and highways. It is generally produced in six grades, from 0, the most liquid, to 5, essentially the most viscous.
Gross sales: See Vitality sales.
Gross sales for resale: A kind of wholesale gross sales protecting power equipped to other electric utilities, cooperatives, municipalities, and Federal and state electric companies for resale to ultimate consumers.
Sales to end users: Sales made directly to the patron of the product. Includes bulk customers, equivalent to agriculture, business, and utilities, in addition to residential and business shoppers.
Sales sort: Sales classes of sales to end-customers and gross sales for resale.
Shell storage capacity: The design capacity of a petroleum storage tank which is always larger than or equal to working storage capability.
Particular naphthas: All completed products within the naphtha boiling range which can be used as paint thinners, cleaners, or solvents. These products are refined to a specified flash level. Special naphthas include all industrial hexane and cleaning solvents conforming to ASTM Specification D1836 and D484, respectively. Naphthas to be blended or marketed as motor gasoline or aviation gasoline, or that are for use as petrochemical and artificial natural fuel (SNG) feedstocks are excluded.
Steam: Water in vapor kind; used as the working fluid in steam turbines and heating techniques. Also see District heat .
Still gas: Any type or mixture of gases produced in refineries by distillation, cracking, reforming, and different processes. The principal constituents are methane and ethane. May contain hydrogen and small/hint amounts of different gases. Still fuel is often consumed as refinery gas or used as petrochemical feedstock. Still fuel burned for refinery gasoline may differ in composition from marketed still fuel offered to other users.
Stock change: The difference between stocks in the beginning of the reporting period and stocks at the tip of the reporting period. Notice: A damaging quantity indicates a decrease (i.e. a drawdown) in stocks and a optimistic quantity signifies an increase (i.e. a buildup) in stocks through the reporting interval.
Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR): Petroleum stocks maintained by the Federal Authorities to be used throughout durations of main provide interruption.
Supply: The components of petroleum provide are area manufacturing, refinery manufacturing, imports, and net receipts when calculated on a PAD District foundation.
TAME: See Tertiary Amyl Methyl Ether.
Tank farm: An installation used by trunk and gathering pipeline firms, crude oil producers, and terminal operators (except refineries) to retailer crude oil.
Tanker and barge: Vessels that transport crude oil or petroleum products. Notice: Knowledge are reported for movements between PAD Districts; from a PAD District to the Panama Canal; or from the Panama Canal to a PAD District.
Tertiary butyl alcohol – (CH3)3COH: An alcohol primarily used as a chemical feedstock or a solvent or feedstock, for isobutylene production for MTBE (methyl tertiary butyl ether) and produced as a co-product of propylene oxide manufacturing or by direct hydration of isobutylene.
Thermal cracking: A refining process wherein heat and strain are used to break down, rearrange, or mix hydrocarbon molecules. Thermal-cracking includes gasoline oil, visbreaking, fluid coking, delayed coking, and other thermal cracking processes (e.g. flexicoking).
Toluene (C6H5CH3): Colorless liquid of the aromatic group of petroleum hydrocarbons, made by the catalytic reforming of petroleum naphthas containing methyl cyclohexane. A excessive-octane gasoline-blending agent, solvent, and chemical intermediate, and a base for TNT (explosive).
Unaccounted for (crude oil): Represents the arithmetic difference between the calculated provide and the calculated disposition of crude oil. The calculated provide is the sum of crude oil production plus imports minus modifications in crude oil stocks. The calculated disposition of crude oil is the sum of crude oil input to refineries, crude oil exports, crude oil burned as fuel, and crude oil losses.
Unfinished oils: All oils requiring additional processing, besides those requiring only mechanical mixing. Unfinished oils are produced by partial refining of crude oil and embody naphthas and lighter oils, kerosene and mild fuel oils, heavy gasoline oils, and residuum.
Unfractionated streams: Mixtures of unsegregated pure gas liquid components, excluding those in plant condensate. This product is extracted from pure gas.
Unit value: Complete revenue derived from the sale of product during the reference month divided by the entire quantity bought; also known as the weighted common worth. Whole income should exclude all taxes but embrace transportation costs that were paid as a part of the acquisition price.
United States: The 50 States and the District of Columbia. Notice: The United States has varying degrees of jurisdiction over numerous territories and other political entities outdoors the 50 States and the District of Columbia, together with Puerto Rico, the U.S. Virgin Islands, Guam, American Samoa, Johnston Atoll, Midway Islands, Wake Island, and the Northern Mariana Islands. EIA information programs could include data from some or all of these areas in U.S. totals. For these packages, knowledge merchandise will comprise notes explaining the extent of geographic protection included below the time period “United States.”
Vacuum distillation: Distillation below reduced stress (much less the atmospheric) which lowers the boiling temperature of the liquid being distilled. This system with its relatively low temperatures prevents cracking or decomposition of the cost inventory.
Visbreaking: A thermal cracking process in which heavy atmospheric or vacuum-still bottoms are cracked at average temperatures to extend production of distillate merchandise and cut back viscosity of the distillation residues.
Wax: A solid or semi-stable materials consisting of a mixture of hydrocarbons obtained or derived from petroleum fractions, or via a Fischer-Tropsch type process, wherein the straight- chained paraffin collection predominates. This consists of all marketable wax, whether or not crude or refined, with a congealing level (ASTM D 938) between a hundred and 200 degrees Fahrenheit and a maximum oil content material (ASTM D 3235) of 50 weight %.
West Texas Intermediate (WTI – Cushing): A crude stream produced in Texas and southern Oklahoma which serves as a reference or “marker” for pricing a variety of different crude streams and which is traded in the home spot market at Cushing, Oklahoma.
Working storage capability: The difference in quantity between the utmost protected fill capacity and the quantity beneath which pump suction is ineffective (bottoms).
Xylene (C6H4(CH3)2): Colorless liquid of the aromatic group of hydrocarbons made the catalytic reforming of certain naphthenic petroleum fractions. Used as high-octane motor and aviation gasoline blending agents, solvents, chemical intermediates. Isomers are metaxylene, orthoxylene, paraxylene.