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Petroleum Refining In the United States

Petroleum refining within the United States in 2013 produced occidental petroleum dividend yield university 18.9 million barrels per day of refined petroleum products, greater than another country.[2] Though the US was the world’s largest web importer of refined petroleum merchandise as lately as 2008, the US turned a net exporter in 2010, and in 2014 was the largest exporter and the most important web exporter of refined petroleum.[Three] As of January 2015, there were 137 operating refineries in the US, distributed amongst 30 states.

Largest petroleum refining corporations in the United States

Largest petroleum refineries in the United States

1 Historical past
2 Geography
three Merchandise three.1 Byproduct sulfur
The primary known US petroleum refiner was Samuel Kier of Pittsburgh, who within the 1850s produced an illuminating oil for miners’ lamps.

American petroleum refining largely grew out of oil shale refining. When the Drake Nicely started producing in 1859, the oil shale business was growing quickly, and establishing refineries near cannel coal deposits along the Ohio River Valley. As oil production elevated, the oil shale refiners found that their refining course of labored simply as effectively with petroleum, and that petroleum was a cheaper uncooked materials than shale oil. In 1861, the existing oil shale refiners switched to petroleum feedstock, and the oil shale mines shut down.

In the 1800s, the principal refined product was kerosene for illuminating oil. The heaviest fraction was used as lubricating oil. A market developed for fuel oil because it was discovered that petroleum was superior to coal in powering the big engines of ships and railroad locomotives.

The recognition of the car within the early 1900s created a mass marketplace for gasoline, and a scarcity quickly developed of the lighter gasoline fractions of crude oil. The scarcity was solved by the invention of the catalytic cracker, which broke lengthy hydrocarbon chains into smaller molecules.

Geography[edit]
Most large refineries are near navigable waterways, particularly seaports or Nice Lakes ports. The single largest focus of refineries is along the Gulf Coast.[11] Although there are refineries in 30 states, simply three states dominate US refining: Texas (forty seven operating refineries), Louisiana (19), and California (18). As of January 2015, these three states comprise 45% of all US refineries and 59% of all US refining capacity.[12]

Merchandise[edit]
The three largest-volume products of US refineries are gasoline, fuel oil (including diesel gasoline and home heating oil), and aviation gasoline, which together make up more than eighty four % of output.[13]

Byproduct sulfur[edit]
Petroleum refineries recover elemental sulfur as a byproduct. In 2012, US oil refineries recovered 7.4 million metric tons of sulfur, value about $915 million, and amounting to 88% of the elemental sulfur produced in the US.[14]

Worldwide commerce[edit]
The United States was for decades, via 2008, the world’s largest web importer of refined petroleum merchandise. However the scenario rapidly modified in 2008 as American refineries grew to become far more value-aggressive due to massive will increase in US manufacturing of oil, pure gas, and pure fuel liquids. The US became a web exporter of refined petroleum in 2010, and since 2013 has been the world’s largest net exporter of refined petroleum. In 2014, the US exported 3.83 million barrels per day and imported 1.35 million barrels per day of refined petroleum, for net exports of two.48 million barrels per day.[15]

The competitive benefit of US refiners has been attributed to the lower value of American crude oil, as reflected by the Oklahoma-based index value West Texas Intermediate, versus the dearer European-based mostly index value Brent Crude. As a result of the nice surge in American manufacturing of oil, natural fuel, and pure gas liquids since 2008, those products have been cheaper in the North American market than worldwide, giving American refiners a serious price advantage.[16] The discount on US crude is partially attributed to the lengthy-standing federal ban on exports of American crude oil.[17]

European Union refiners have been onerous-hit by the growth in US exports. They lost a lot of their previous gasoline occidental petroleum dividend yield university exports to the US, and likewise market share in the worldwide market to the newly aggressive US refineries. As well as, US refineries have increasingly exported petroleum products to the EU. In 2008, US exports of fuel oil (house heating gasoline) surged to a 31% market share within the EU, up from 5% the previous yr; in 2011, US imports held a 37% market share of gasoil within the EU.[18] There was discussion that EU refineries must shut down without government intervention. [19]

^ “U.S. Power Info Administration: High 10 U.S. Refineries Operable Capacity”. Retrieved 2015-01-26.
^ OPEC, Statistical Bulletin, 2014
^ OPEC, Annual Statistical Bulletin, 2015.
^ “Tesoro Closes Western Refining Merger, To Be Named Andeavor”. NASDAQ.com. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
^ a b c report, Advocate staff. “Shell assumes ownership of Norco, Convent refineries in Motiva deal with Saudi Aramco”. The Advocate. Retrieved 2017-06-04.
^ “PBF Energy Completes Acquisition of the Torrance Refinery and Associated Logistics Belongings”. investors.pbfenergy.com. Retrieved 2016-eleven-30.
^ “Island Power finalizes deal for Chevron Hawaii refinery, downstream belongings”. www.ogj.com. Retrieved 2016-11-30.
^ “Tesoro Closes Western Refining Merger, To Be Named Andeavor”. NASDAQ.com. 2017-06-05. Retrieved 2017-08-20.
^ US Energy Information Administration, Table 5, 2015.
^ US Energy Information Administration, Table 5, 2015.
^ US Power Data Administration, Much of the country’s refinery capacity is concentrated alongside the Gulf Coast, 19 July, 2012.
^ US Energy Information Administration, Refining capability by state.
^ US Energy Information Administration, Refinery Yield accessed 26 July 2015.
^ Lori E. Apodaca, Sulfur, US Geological Survey, 2012 Minerals Yearbook, Feb. 2015.
^ OPEC, Data Obtain, Tables 5.Four and 5.7, 2014.
^ Nicolas Sakelaris, “How the shale increase interprets into huge income for US refineries,” Dallas Enterprise Journal, 5 June 2014.
^ Ed Crooks, “US oil refiners face battle to prolong halcyon days,” Financial Times, 17 Aug. 2014.
^ Chris Beddoes, “Competitiveness of European refining,” sixth Oil Forum of the Power Neighborhood, 30 Sept. 2014.
^ Tara Patel, “French refineries in danger as demand occidental petroleum dividend yield university weakens, business lobby says,” Bloomberg, 10 Mar.

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