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Chemistry Of Petroleum 3: Distillation Of Hydrocarbons

To introduce how hydrocarbons in crude oil are distilled and treated in the refinery process to provide useful materials.

Context
This lesson is a part of the Power in a High-Tech World Venture, which examines the science behind vitality. Energy in a Excessive-Tech World is developed by AAAS and funded by the American Petroleum Institute. For extra lessons, actions, and interactives that take a better look on the science behind power, make sure to check out the Energy in a High-Tech World Undertaking page.

This lesson is the third in a sequence of lessons about the chemistry of petroleum which might be intended for upper-stage chemistry students within the eleventh and 12th grades. You ought to be an experienced chemistry instructor to show these classes. The purpose of those lessons is to introduce high-school college students to the usage of oil as an energy source in today’s excessive-tech world. In the Chemistry of Petroleum 1: What are Hydrocarbons college students will explore hydrocarbons, the molecular foundation of petroleum, and learn to distinguish between natural and inorganic compounds.

Within the Chemistry of Petroleum 2: What Happens to Hydrocarbons When they Burn college students will look at the varying amounts of energy produced by the combustion of different hydrocarbons.

On this lesson, the Chemistry of Petroleum 3: Distillation of Hydrocarbons, college students can be launched to the distillation and therapy processes by which petroleum is refined to provide useful gasoline oils.

The Chemistry of Petroleum 4: Therapy of Hydrocarbons will help college students discover the chemical treatment processes by which distilled petroleum fractions are converted to provide useful gasoline oils.

This particular lesson gives the chance to address numerous misconceptions that college students have concerning the physical world. Generally, terminology can inadvertently cause college students to develop such misconceptions. The time period “fossil fuel” can sometimes be misleading because it implies that crude oil is manufactured from or derived from fossils. Throughout the motivation part of this lesson, it may be useful to clarify the distinction between a true fossil and fossil fuels. Fossils are the preserved stays or traces of life varieties from the previous, often by way of the technique of permineralization. Fossil fuels are produced from decayed organic matter that has changed chemically over geologic time attributable to mississippi oil and gas production high levels of heat and strain. The time period “fossil fuel” is used for substances akin to coal, pure gas, and crude oil or petroleum, because the natural life types lived thousands and thousands of years ago.

Another misconception amongst students is that crude oil is composed of individual molecules of diesel, kerosene, and the opposite refined merchandise. This misconception may emerge if students consider the refinery process as a sieve by means of which these products are sorted out from crude oil. The analogy of a sieve is an effective one if students understand that the refined merchandise aren’t individual molecules, but a collection of chemically related molecules. In other words, there isn’t any single molecule often known as diesel, or kerosene, or light gases, with a specific chemical system. In contrast, water is a molecule defined by a particular chemical components of H2O. Diesel, alternatively, is a mixture of different molecules that share the same properties. The chemical property that is essentially utilized to sort the assorted hydrocarbons in crude oil is boiling level. The sieve within the refining process separates hydrocarbon molecules of similar size—and subsequently, similar chemical properties. Specific collections of similarly sized hydrocarbon molecules are often called diesel, kerosene, light gases, and the opposite numerous refined products.

When watching Oil Refining: A better Look, it is useful to additionally address that the composition and look of crude oil will differ relying upon its source. The interactive reveals a thick, black, liquid substance; nevertheless, crude oil could be brown, yellow, or even green relying upon its chemical composition. It also may be found in a semi-strong form that does not flow easily until after it is heated or diluted.

Research shows that students have many misconceptions about heat, temperature, and phase changes resembling boiling. (Benchmarks for Science Literacy, p. 337.) A simple misunderstanding that students may have is that a substance can change phases (i.e. from liquid to fuel), whereas nonetheless remaining intact in its chemical composition. In the steam furnace animation within the distillation course of, point out to college students that the molecular structure of hydrocarbons doesn’t change when they change phase from liquid to gas. Additionally it is vital to point out that this part change shouldn’t be a perform of temperature alone. The boiling level of a liquid is decided not solely by heat, but in addition by the atmospheric strain around the liquid. In the event part of the lesson, a chance is offered to discuss why water boils at a decrease temperature at high altitudes. This will help to make clear the misunderstanding that boiling level is a operate of a temperature studying.

So as for students to do this lesson, in addition to the opposite classes on this collection, they need to have prerequisite knowledge of the basics of atoms and their structure. Fundamental details about atoms might be found on the Atom. Students additionally should know basic organic chemistry, including an understanding of what hydrocarbons are and how they’re named (i.e. nomenclature).

Motivation
Begin by reviewing what crude oil is, how it is formed, and its relevance to human lives by having students use their Oil Refining scholar esheet to look at the introductory animation from Oil Refining: A closer Look. The film has an accompanying script that you can print out. The narrator speaks quickly, so it’s a good idea to read the script after watching the film the primary time. After reading the script, students can watch the film a second time, which can facilitate understanding.

Present the Understanding Crude Oil pupil sheet to college students as they watch the animation. They need to answer the questions on this sheet.

Question 9 provides a possibility to explain how petroleum rises to the floor over time. To help solidify this concept with college students, have them do a quick activity with vegetable oil and water (you may do that as a demonstration in case you favor). They need to first pour the vegetable oil into a clear glass, beaker, or cylinder. Ask college students:

– What occurs when oil and water are combined
Now ask students to pour the water on prime of the oil. The two phases will separate shortly. Ask college students:

– Which phase is now on high
Clarify to students that vegetable oil is a mixture of hydrocarbons from plants, similar to kerogen. Make certain that college students perceive that vegetable oil will not be a fossil fuel like kerogen because it’s not produced from natural matter thousands and thousands of years outdated that skilled excessive pressures and temperatures over time. Inform students that if the highest of the glass represented the ground, the oil would be sitting on the surface of the earth and would eventually evaporate or be broken down by bacteria. Place your hand over the top of the glass and tell students that it represents non-porous rock, reminiscent of shale. Explain that in petroleum exploration, a rock that holds back the petroleum from coming out in direction of the surface is called a cap rock or seal rock. As a result of the cap rock is non-porous, the petroleum fills up below it like a reservoir. The rocks immediately under the cap rock are porous, as a result of the petroleum was ready to move by these rocks. In petroleum exploration, scientists search for these cap rocks above porous rocks to search for deposits. If available, pass round a sample of shale rock, pointing out that it has no pores or openings. A glazed tile also can symbolize a non-porous cap rock. Allow students to pour vegetable oil onto the rock or tile to see that it’s going to simply roll off and never be absorbed, just as with a cap rock.

Growth
Have students proceed to the subsequent a part of the interactive, “Let’s Distill.” It is recommended to go through the 5 hotspots collectively as a category. It will ensure that students all perceive the basic concepts around distillation and therapy of petroleum.

Point out the yellow barrel labeled “crude oil”. Inform students that once the petroleum has been extracted from the bottom, it is sent to refineries. The interactive simulates and describes the varied chemical processes that petroleum undergoes with the intention to make useful merchandise.

Ask students:
– What is crude oil composed of

Click on the “Dump Crude Oil” button after which roll over the hotspot and skim the description. Focus on with college students that crude oil is made up of different compounds. Ensure that college students don’t think that the assorted compounds are floating around within crude oil, but that crude oil itself is the collection of these compounds. Inform students that crude oil will fluctuate in its composition relying on its geographic location. Basically, it’s composed of a combination of straight-chained hydrocarbons and ringed hydrocarbons. Level out that there are some sulfur and nitrogen compounds combined with the hydrocarbons as well. Remind students that kerogen also contained sulfur and nitrogen.

Click on the “Dump Crude Oil” button again. Ask college students:
– Where does the crude oil go

Earlier than proceeding, provide every scholar with a desk of hydrocarbon boiling factors from Boiling Factors and Constructions of Hydrocarbons. Ask college students:

– Whenever you look on the “name” and “molecular formula” columns, what sample do you discover as you go down

Overview the idea of boiling point with students by having them do a fast fingers-on exercise of boiling water with a thermometer placed within the water. Have college students bring some water to a boil. As soon as it reaches the boiling point, ask them:

– What is happening to a substance when it begins to boil
College students should place the thermometer into the boiling water and read the temperature. A standard false impression amongst students is that the temperature of a boiling substance will increase because it boils. To assist correct this false impression, allow students to see that the temperature of the boiling water stays at 100 levels Celsius as it boils. Another common misconception is that the boiling level is when a liquid turns into gas, and never vice versa. It is crucial to handle that boiling point is a section change between liquid and gas. It is the point when a liquid turns into gas and a fuel turns into liquid. Point this out to students by exhibiting that the boiling water could be seen as liquid turning into gas, or fuel turning into liquid.

Inform students that on Mount Everest, water boils at 69 levels Celsius. Ask college students:
– What makes the summit of Mount Everest different from sea degree

Assessment with college students that the boiling point of a substance is just not a perform of temperature alone. What determines when a substance will change from liquid to gas is both temperature and the encompassing atmospheric pressure. College students are sometimes aware, by their lived experience, that a change in temperature will alter a substance’s part. For instance, water positioned within the freezer adjustments into ice, and water that’s heated to one hundred degrees Celsius boils and turns into a gasoline. Nevertheless, they usually do no make the connection that strain is equally as mississippi oil and gas production vital in determining the section of a substance. To assist make this level extra clear, ask college students to imagine a balloon that accommodates air molecules. Inform college students that temperature is a measure of heat. If the balloon is heated, the kinetic vitality of the molecules contained in the balloon additionally will increase and they start to interrupt away from one another and move quicker. Ask college students:

– What will happen to the dimensions of the balloon because the heat and corresponding kinetic energy of the molecules increase

The barrier of the balloon represents the exterior air stress. It holds the air molecules again from expanding out any further. At some point, as the heat increases, the balloon will burst. That bursting represents boiling as a result of at that point, the pressure inside the balloon becomes equal to the strain outdoors of the balloon. Similarly, a liquid boils when its internal stress is equal to the atmospheric strain.

Going again to the example of Mount Everest, inform students that water boils at a lower temperature on the mountain (69 degrees Celsius) as a result of at that time, its pressure is equal to the low atmospheric stress on Mount Everest. As you descend from Mount Everest and come to sea degree, the atmospheric stress is extra, so correspondingly more heat is needed to trigger boiling (100 degrees Celsius).

Return again to the desk of hydrocarbon boiling points from Boiling Points and Buildings of Hydrocarbons. Ask students:

– Why do you assume that the boiling point of alkanes is said to the dimensions of the molecules
Level out that pentane by means of dodecane are liquid at room temperature. Ask college students:

– Of the eight alkanes, which one has the highest boiling point
Examine dodecane to an extended spaghetti strand. Attributable to its longer size in comparison with that of a smaller pentane molecule, dodecane molecules will wrap round one another, making it tougher to separate them because of those strong forces.

– If all these alkanes have been blended together in a pot, and the temperature was increased to 250 degrees Celsius, what would happen to all these alkanes

Return back to the interactive. Remind students that crude oil or petroleum is a mixture of hydrocarbons. The oil is now in the furnace and will probably be heated. Click on “Start Furnace” and roll over the hotspot and have students focus on a single hydrocarbon molecule. Ask college students:

– If all the hydrocarbons are superheated, what section will they go into
Point out that the furnace has now superheated the crude oil elements which are now in vapor kind. Indicate that the vapor has now traveled to the distillation column where the vapor rises. Point out the temperature gradations on the facet of the distillation column.

Roll over the hotspot on the left side of the distillation column and level out that the animation shows two totally different hydrocarbon molecules—methane and cyclopentane. Ask college students:

– Which one can have a lower boiling point
Roll over the hotspot at the top right nook of the distillation clumn. Show students that all of the smaller chained hydrocarbons gather greater up in the distillation column. The collections of those comparable hydrocarbons are referred to as fractions. Examples of lighter fractions are gasoline and naphtha. Rolling over the hotspot at the decrease proper corner of the distillation column will show college students heavier fractions, similar to diesel.

Naphtha is a collection of hydrocarbons in the C5, C6, and C7 range. These hydrocarbons are all very mild, simply vaporized, and kind a transparent liquid. Ultimately, after treatment, naphthas are used as solvents in dry cleaning, paint, and other industries that want quick-drying products. Gasoline is a collection of hydrocarbons within the C7 and C11 vary. Diesel is composed of hydrocarbons within the C16 range. As a result of they are larger hydrocarbons, their boiling point is way higher and will condense into liquid decrease within the distillation column the place the temperature is greater. Make sure that students perceive that the collected fractions are not one molecule, but somewhat a group of hydrocarbons of similar size, and thus, comparable boiling point temperatures.

Tell college students mississippi oil and gas production that distillation is the first a part of the petroleum refining process. The fractions must now undergo treatment for two reasons. First, the hydrocarbon fractions nonetheless have substances in them corresponding to sulfur, which have to be removed. Second, a number of the longer hydrocarbon fractions need to be chemically altered and shortened into smaller chains in order to grow to be extra useful products.

Assessment
To assess students’ understandings of the main ideas coated in this lesson, ask them to complete the Assessing Our Understanding of Crude Oil student sheet. Inform college students that the ten questions tackle misconceptions that the general public has about crude oil. Have college students full the sheet individually. As soon as all the students have chosen their answers, ask students to work in small groups and share their responses to each question with their group members. Each group must decide on their collective answer to every query. Present classroom time for scholar teams to share with one another. Encourage college students to debate misconceptions and why these misconceptions might exist in most of the people. For teachers, this can also be a superb opportunity to evaluate if students are understanding the main ideas through the lessons. The Assessing Our Understanding of Crude Oil trainer sheet gives solutions to the questions.

Extensions
Explore the use of vegetable oil, used in the motivation part of this lesson, as a gasoline itself. The Bio-Gas Venture, from the Energy Efficiency and Renewable Vitality site, offers an extensive, two-week curriculum wherein college students learn how to make their own biodiesel gasoline from waste vegetable oil.

To further emphasize the connection between the boiling point of a substance and atmospheric strain, use NASA’s lesson, Testing Your Hypothesis by Boiling Water Beneath Its Boiling Temperature.

Acid Rain: Results Felt By means of the Food Chain, from Nationwide Geographic, supplies details about the essential causes and results of acid rain, together with photographs and what humans can do to decrease its prevalence.

Local weather Change: Fundamental Information, from the U.S. Environmental Safety Company, supplies comprehensive info on the issue of worldwide warming and local weather change.

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