Ceaselessly Asked Questions – Crude Oil/Refining Course of
Crude oil happens naturally in the bottom and is a fancy mixture of organic liquids, formed tens of millions of years in the past. Crude oil varies from oilfield to oilfield in shade and composition, from pale yellow, low viscosity fluid to heavy black “treacle” consistencies. Of little use in its pure state, the value of crude oil lies in its bi-merchandise together with fuels, lubricating oils, waxes, asphalt and petrochemicals.
Crude oil incorporates a mixture of hydrocarbon compounds and comparatively small quantities of other materials corresponding to oxygen, nitrogen, sulphur, salt and water.
Crude oil is sourced mainly from Mexico, Venezuela and Ecuador.
The standard industry unit measure for petroleum volumes is a Barrel (bbl).
1 BBL = 42 US Gallons = 34.9726 Imperial Gallon = 158.987 Litres.
There are a number of elements which influenced the location of the refinery. These include:
– Location in an Industrial Zone, which minimizes danger to surrounding communities and the surroundings;
– Proximity to sea supplies: – Accessibility to ocean going vessels for receiving crude oil and completed products, as well as from pipelines positioned underneath the sea.
– An ample provide of seawater for fireplace fighting.
– Straightforward dispersal of waste gases in a seaward course as a result of prevailing wind direction.
– Underground supply of well water for cooling and boiler feed water. (National Water Commission sources present extra “make-up” water, when crucial).
Refining begins with the separation of crude oil into completely different fractions by distillation. The fractions are further treated lube oil transfer pump and processed to convert them into mixtures of extra useful saleable merchandise by varied strategies such as cracking, reforming, alkalization, polymerization and isomerization. These mixtures of new compounds are then separated using methods equivalent to fractionation and solvent extraction.
Petrojam is a hydro-skimming refinery
This describes a refining process wherein different petroleum fractions are merely separated out of the crude oil distillation and no significant further conversion of the fractions into different compounds is finished. At Petrojam, the one secondary conversion process undertaken is the conversion of naptha (the gasoline fraction), into a lube oil transfer pump excessive-octane grade compound.
Hydroskimming – The refinery process
– LPG/Cooking fuel – used for heating, cooking, making plastics.
– Naphthasol – used as a cleansing solvent.
– Gasoline – 87 and ninety Octane grades of petrol for the transportation sector.
– Jet fuel/Kerosene – gasoline for jet engines, other aircraft and equipment together with home lighting.
– Automobile Diesel Oil/Fuel Oil – utilized in diesel engine automobiles and to operate generators.
– Heavy Gasoline Oil – used for industrial operations corresponding to power generation and marine transportation.
– Asphalt – used for street building.
The Octane Quantity is a measure of the resistance of a fuel to detonation (“knock”) when burned in an internal Synthetic Rubber Equipment combustion engine. The higher the Octane Quantity, the more practical the anti-knock high quality of the gasoline. A excessive percentage of vehicles in Jamaica require 87 Octane gasoline.
Petrojam’s ex-refinery pricing coverage is predicated on the idea of import parity. Since deregulation of the petroleum market, refined petroleum merchandise are priced to price no more than the worth an importer would pay to purchase completed merchandise overseas and land them in Jamaica.
Regional gasoline prices are listed to the current US Gulf Reference costs. To these prices are added freight and insurance coverage, and the cost for storage and dealing with.
No. Petrojam provides roughly 54% of Jamaica’s annual 26 million barrel petroleum necessities. The bauxite firms import approximately 35% for his or her operations and the remaining 11% is imported immediately by the multinational advertising and marketing firms for the transportation sector.