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Accumulation of heavy metals and histopathology were observed in Oreochromis niloticus exposed to handled petroleum refinery effluent from the Nigerian National Petroleum Company, Kaduna. Evaluation of fish metallic burden showed that the fish concentrated hint metals a thousand occasions above the levels current within the exposure medium. Some metals were preferentially accumulated greater than others and the accumulation was, in lowering order, Pb, Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Cr, Ni, and Cd. Entire fish metallic burden was lower in fish from which the gill, liver, and kidney had been removed, suggesting that these organs accumulated the metals greater than different tissues. is oil energy renewable or nonrenewable Hemorrhaging of fins was noticed in all treatment concentrations except that of the control, and fish uncovered to 40 and 50% effluent had been most affected. Erosion of the caudal fin was additionally observed in fish exposed to 40 and is oil energy renewable or nonrenewable 50% effluent. Examination of the organs for histopathology revealed damages to gasification the gills. Gills with edematous fused lamellae congested with blood have been observed. No histopathological harm was noticed in the liver and kidney. The extent of metal accumulation and histopathological harm have been directly associated to the effluent concentrations.
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