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51.5 DISTILLATION OF CRUDE OIL

Petroleum fuel is a mixture of butane, propane and ethane. The main constituent of petroleum gasoline is butane. Petroleum gas burns readily within the presence of air with a blue flame, producing a large amount of heat. Butane, propane and ethane are gases under extraordinary pressure. Nonetheless, butane will be simply liquefied underneath stress. The petroleum gas which has been liquefied underneath stress known as Liquefied Petroleum Fuel (LPG). Petroleum fuel is equipped in liquid type in order that a cylinder of even small quantity might contain an appreciable amount of the fuel. A powerful smelling substance (Ethyl mercaptan, C2H5SH is added to LPG gasoline cylinders to assist in the detection of gasoline leakage. The gas used for domestic cooking is named Liquefied Petroleum Gasoline (LPG) because it is current in liquid kind within the cylinders.

Are you aware Asphaltenes
The non-unstable tarry residue left after distillation of residue from the fractionating tower contains compounds with giant molecules. These are resins and asphaltenes.

Asphaltenes consist primarily of carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, oxygen and sulphur. Asphaltenes are outlined operationally as n-heptane insoluble and toluene soluble component of a carbonaceous materials akin to crude oil. They represent the non-risky, high
molecular mass fraction of petroleum. Moreover, since they are insoluble in heptane, they remain in stable kind even within the crude. Asphaltenes are current in dispersed
form in the crude oil. They are stabilised by resins which keep them dispersed in oil.

Asphaltenes create many production problems due to their depositional impact within the production equipment. Asphaltenes within the type of distillation merchandise from
refineries are used as ‘tar-mats’ on roads.

SOLVED EXAMPLES
Example 51.1 The boiling points of three elements A, B and C of petroleum are 120°C, 70°C and 250°C respectively. if the mixture of three is fractionally distilled, which of the three might be

obtained at the bottom of the distillation column
Answer. Throughout fractional distillation of a mixture, the element having the highest boiling level is obtained at the bottom of the column. Within the given mixture, the element C has the very best boiling point and therefore will be obtained 100 petroleum jelly uses 10 at the bottom of the distillation column.

Instance fifty one.2 A mixture accommodates three components P, Q and R-with boiling factors 150°C, 250°C and 350°C respectively. if this mixture is subjected to fractional distillation, in which order would you get these substances

Resolution. Throughout fractional distillation of a mixture, the component having the highest boiling point is obtained at the bottom of the column whereas the part having the least boiling point is obtained at the top of the column. In the given mixture the part R, having the highest boiling point will probably be obtained at the underside of the column. The component Q having intermediate boiling point can be obtained in the course of 100 petroleum jelly uses 10 the column whereas the part P, having the lowest boiling point, will likely be obtained at the highest of the column. Thus, these substances can be obtained (from bottom to high) within the order R, Q and P.

Exercise fifty one.1 Petroleum fractions are highly inflammable
Accumulate samples of petroleum ether, gasoline, kerosene 100 petroleum jelly uses 10 oil and diesel oil.

– Examine the ignition behaviour of those fractions by burning slightly of each fraction.
– Observe the convenience with which each fraction ignites and observe the flame.
– Observe the viscous nature of every fraction.